Lietuvos gyventojų mitybos ir jos pokyčių vertinimas, atsižvelgiant į socialinius veiksnius

Show simple item record Kriaučionienė, Vilma 2017-08-21T08:10:49Z 2017-08-21T08:10:49Z 2005
dc.description.abstract The aim of the study was assess socio-demographic variations in nutrition habits and their trends over the last decade in Lithuanian adult population. Objectives were: 1. To evaluate the trends in food habits of Lithuanian adult population between 1994 and 2004. 2. To determine the associations between nutritional habits and social factors: sex, age, the level of education, the place of residence, and marital status. 3. To evaluate the associations of nutritional habits with subjective health and health behaviour: smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. 4. To examine the participation of health professionals in the promotion of healthy nutrition and to assess the population’s opinion about the reasons for dietary changes. Since 1994 Lithuania together with Finland, Estonia and Latvia has been participating in international Health Behaviour project (FINBALT HEALTH MONITOR). Along with other health behaviour, nutrition habits have been estimated as well. This doctoral thesis is a part of this international project. In Lithuania, six health behaviour surveys on national samples of the adult population were carried out every two years. For every survey, a national random sample of 3000 inhabitants aged 20-64 years was taken from the National Population Register. The study material was collected through a postal survey. The questionnaires were mailed in March and those who did not respond within a month received another copy of the questionnaire in May. The self-administrated questionnaire was filled-in by 11659 persons (5146 men and 6513 women). Response rates ranged from 61.7% to 74.4%. The standardized questionnaire contained questions on the socio-demographic characteristics, subjective health, smoking, nutrition habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and advice to change health behaviour. The main questions of interest have been kept unchanged to ensure comparability between the years studied. The respondents were differentiated into three age groups: 20-34, 35-49, and 50-64 years of age. Education was measured using five educational levels (primary, incomplete secondary, secondary, vocational, and university). The respondents were categorized into three groups: persons with incomplete secondary education (primary or incomplete secondary), secondary (secondary or vocational), and university education. The degree of urbanization was based on the administrative classification of the places of residence. The respondents were grouped as living in cities, towns, or villages according to their place of residence. They were categorized as married and unmarried according to their marital status. The questionnaire included food-related questions dealing with cooking fats, bread spreads, vegetables, milk, bread, eggs, sugar, coffee and tea consumption, since 1996 the question on the frequency of the consumption of fresh vegetables has been included, since 1998 and further surveys, the questions on the consumption frequency of meat, fish, cheese, cereals, potatoes, and sweets - was added. The respondent was asked to mark the frequency of the consumption of 20 common food items: ‘How often during the last week have you consumed the following foods and drinks?’ The respondent could choose one of the following answers: never, 1-2 days a week, 3-5 days a week, or 6-7 days a week. The former questions on cooking fats, bread spreads, milk, bread, eggs, sugar, and coffee and tea consumption were kept unchanged. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical software package SPSS 11.0 for Windows. In order to assess the trends in nutrition habits between 1994 and 2004, age-adjusted annual prevalence rates were calculated using the distribution of Lithuanian population by age in 2001 (census data) as a standard. P for trends was estimated. Data from 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2004 were used for analysis of the associations between social factors and nutrition habits. The differences in the distribution of the respondents were assessed using analyses of the chi-squared tests. The difference was considered to be significant when p<0.05. The effect of age, the level of education, the place of residence, and marital status on nutrition habits was evaluated using multifactor logistic regression analysis that was carried out separately for men and women. The reference groups were: the age group of 20-34 years, respondents with incomplete secondary education, residents of urban areas, and married subjects. The results are presented as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. When the 95% confidence interval did not include 1, the odds ratio was considered to be statistically significant. The statistical analysis of the associations between nutrition habits and subjective health as well as health behaviours were performed using data collected by means of food frequency questionnaire in 1998 – 2004. Factor analysis was employed in order to reduce the number of food items in the food frequency questionnaire to the main factors. Food items with absolute factor loading >0.5 were considered as significantly contributing to the main factor. The factor analysis extracted four main factors from 20 food items. Separate logistic regression models were used for each indicator with adjustment for age, level of education, place of residence, and marital status. Results: 1. Positive trends in nutrition habits were observed between 1994-2002 in Lithuania. The diet of the Lithuanian population tended to become closer to the WHO recommendations for healthy nutrition. People started to consume more vegetable oil and margarine, and less animal fat (lard, butter, and high-fat milk). The consumption of fresh vegetables, fruit, and dark bread has increased. Although all social groups of the Lithuanian population have changed their diet, social differences in nutrition habits still remained significant. 2. Lithuanian women had healthier diet than men did. Women more often than men used vegetable oil for cooking, consumed fresh vegetables, fruit, and porridges, and drank sugar-free tea and coffee. The consumption of meat and meat products as well as high-fat milk was less common among women than among men. 3. Men and women in the youngest age group more frequently used vegetable oil for cooking, and less frequently consumed high-fat milk and butter on their bread, compared to the eldest respondents. However, compared to older people, they less frequently consumed dark bread, porridges, and fish, and more frequently – meat and meat products. 4. The majority of people with higher education had healthier nutrition habits, compared to people with unfinished secondary education. People with higher education more frequently consumed fresh fruit and vegetables, used vegetable oil for cooking, more frequently ate fish, and less frequently consumed high-fat milk, in comparison with the respondents with unfinished secondary education levels. However, people with higher education levels, compared to those with unfinished secondary education, more frequently consumed butter, fermented cheese, and less frequently – dark bread; in addition to that, of the two education groups, males in the former one more frequently consumed meat. 5. Nutrition habits of the rural population were less healthy, compared to those of the urban population. Both males and females living in the rural areas less frequently had breakfast and used vegetable oil, and more frequently consumed high-fat milk, compared to the urban population. In addition to that, rural population of both sexes less frequently consumed fresh fruit, and females– fresh vegetables, compared to the inhabitants of the urban areas. 6. Unmarried women less frequently consumed meat and meat products and high-fat milk, less frequently used butter on their bread, and more frequently drank sugar-free tea and coffee, compared to the married ones. Unmarried men more frequently drank sugar-free tea and coffee, ate fresh fruit and dark bread, and less frequently – meat, compared to the married ones. However, they less frequently used vegetable oil, and more frequently consumed high-fat milk and fermented cheese, compared to those with families. 7. Nutrition habits were related to the subjective health and lifestyle factors. People who more frequently consumed vegetables, and less frequently – meat, presented better evaluations of their health, compared to those who consumed little vegetables and much meat. Men who consumed more vegetables and fish less frequently were smokers, while the respondents of both sexes with such nutrition habits tended to consume more alcohol and were more physically active, compared to those who less frequently consumed the aforementioned products. People who ate porridges less frequently consumed alcoholic beverages of all kinds, and more frequently exercised during their free-time, whereas men who consumed more meat, eggs, and potatoes more frequently smoked and consumed beer and strong alcoholic beverages, compared to those who tended to avoid the aforementioned products. 8. Physicians and other health professionals are insufficiently active in the promotion of healthy nutrition habits. Only 12.7% of men and 16.4% of women stated that they were advised by their physician to change their nutrition habits for health improvement. People who received advice more frequently stated that they changed their nutrition habits during the last year, compared to those who were not advised. The respondents who more frequently stated that they changed unhealthy nutrition habits during the last 12 months were women, the eldest and better educated people, and married men. 9. The reduction of the prevalence of chronic diseases and the improvement of the Lithuanian population’s health necessitate the promotion of positive changes in nutrition as well as timely prevention of the negative ones. Social differences in nutrition habits should be taken into consideration when prepar
dc.language.iso lit
dc.subject Visuonenės sveikata
dc.subject Epidemiological studies
dc.subject Public health
dc.subject Epidemiologiniai tyrimai
dc.subject Mityba
dc.subject Nutrition
dc.title Lietuvos gyventojų mitybos ir jos pokyčių vertinimas, atsižvelgiant į socialinius veiksnius
dc.title.alternative Social variations in nutritional habits and their trends in lithuanian adult population
dc.type Daktaro disertacija

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