Rausvažiedės ežiuolės Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench antiandrogeninių savybių eksperimentiniai tyrimai

Show simple item record Skaudickas, Darijus 2017-08-21T08:06:42Z 2017-08-21T08:06:42Z 2005
dc.description.abstract 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Work actuality In recent years the number of males with urination disorders mostly induced by prostate pathology has significantly increased [Gas et al., 1998; Khan, Khan et al., 2005; Amaral, Coeli et al., 2004]. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) affects males at a much younger age making them complain of urination disorders of different types and intensity. It is quite a common pathology among males (which is) conditioned by life style and nutrition [Saga & Sugimura, 2004; Shabbir & Mumtaz, 2004; Cambell, 2005]. Clinical symptoms of BPH are not restricted only to urination complaints. With an increase of age of males, the balance of androgens and estrogens undergoes changes in the male organism, affecting the power of libido. According to C.M.Porth, 2005, two theories related to senility have been created, trying to explain biological processes occurring with age: The first theory is related to the so called genetically programmed changes. This theory affirms that changes brought on by aging, are genetically predetermined. Another theory is called the stochastic theory which says that all changes are of accidental nature, i.e. the body undergoes accidental changes. There is one more theory, the so-called neuroendocrinic theory of senility. This theory involves three basic factors of the process of aging: 1) facilitated degradation of hormones, 2) decreased synthesis and secretion of hormones, 3) diminished sensitivity of “target” receptors to hormones. These disorders of homeostasis are also characteristic of sexual hormonal pathology [Hafez & Hafez, 2004]. Methods of diagnosis and treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia undergo constant changes and improvement. The aim of BPH treatment is to improve the quality and state of the patient by diminishing the disabling and crippling effect of lower ducts of urinary tract disorders. In spite of the fact that the present-day urosurgery has accumulated rich experience in surgical treatment, the number of patients with BPH willing to undergo operative treatment is gradually diminishing. Medicamental therapy deserves more and more attention, the fact having been accentuated at the Poltava international conference of 2004 [Kumanov, Mladenov, et al., 1998; Janev & Milushev, 1994]. The number of frequent postoperative complications following surgical interventions performed on younger patients compels surgeons look for some new methods of conservative treatment [Kumarov, Mladenov et al., 1998; Mebust, Holtgreve et al., 2002]. Thorough studies of urodynamics reveal urination disorders of different degree, thus helping physicians achieve more optimal correction of urination disorders [Brierly, Hindley et al., 2003; Dmochovski & Staskin, 2002; Alam, Sugimura et al., 2000]. More frequent application of conservative treatment compels doctors search for some new preparations, including phytopreparations which are known to be of plant origin and have polytherapic mechanism of action, permitting elderly males restrict the use of medicaments of chemical origin. Elderly people show slower processes of metabolism and at the same time they demonstrate evident changes in immunity response [Soga & Sugimura, 2004]. At present, greater numbers of elderly people turn out to be suffering from BPH or some other allergic diseases. On developing benign prostatic hyperplasia followed by formation of urostasis, conditions for developing complications induced by infection become quite feasible, because elderly males have less efficient immunity system. Structural formula of peripheral blood leukocytes also undergoes changes, dominated by lymphopenia and neutrophilia, followed by a decrease in production of IL – 1, IL – 2, and γ interferon with weakening of their function. Therefore, in order to successfully treat patients who have BPH, it is necessary to use immunostimulators for activation of the immunity system [Astin, 1998]. Immunostimulators produced synthetically or by means of genetical engineering are expensive and they can cause adverse side effects such as dizziness, skin reactions, leukopenia, agranulocytosis. It is possible to avoid such side effects by using phytoimmunostimulators produced from purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. Moench) preparations [Bauer 1996; Hortettmann, 2003; Kligler, 2003]. Purple coneflower structurally containing polysaccharides, phytosterols, phenolic, coffee acid compounds and other substances distinquishes itself by multiple action, such as immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antivirous, anticancerous, and radioprotective [Dorsch, 1996; Mishima, Saito et al., 2004; Schwarz, Metzler et al., 2002; Sparreboom, Cox et al., 2004]. Due to the fact that purple coneflower structurally contains lots of active substances it is expedient to investigate its antiandrogenic effect [Ryokkynen, Nieminen e t al., 2005; Berges, Vassen e t al., 2000; Kassen, 1999; Wilt, MacDonald et al., 1999; Kabayashi, Sugaya et al., 1998; Von Holtz, Fink et al., 1998; Skaudickas, Kondrotas et al., 2004; Skaudickas, Kondrotas et al., 2003]. Phytopreparations produced from purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.Moench) are widely used in the USA and Europe [Hostettmann, 2003]. When estimating GPH pathogenesis, causes of complications, tendencies in treatment tactics, it is expedient and important to investigate complexive antiandrogenic effect of purple coneflower preparations on BPH. 1.2. Work novelty and practical significance At the present time the number of young people suffering from urological diseases is constantly increasing and this fact makes doctors look for some more effective preparations and treatment methods which could impede the development of such diseases and improve the quality of life. Frequent occurrence of stressful situations, environmental pollution, improper nutrition and some other factors affect the immunity system and induce body’s defensive mechanism to action causing changes and disorders in adaptation reactions. All such changes create conditions for the occurrence of oncological, autoimmune, virus, and proliferating diseases (e.g. atherosclerosis, arthritic diseases, BPH, and others). [Takomi, Goryo et al., 2005; Andreas & Castro, 2003; Sanchez, Longo et al., 2004; Hollborn, Krausse et al., 2004]. For this reason it is necessary to seek for some new preparations trying to establish new possibilities for the use of phytopreparations. One of such preparations has been derived from purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.Moench). Scientific research has helped to establish the scope of indications for the use of such preparations. However, the scope of indications has been found to increase with every year [Sparreboom, Cox et al., 2004]. The structure of purple coneflower also contains some active substances which have not been completely studied as yet (e.g. lectine, phytosterol, alkilamides] whose spectrum of therapeutic action turns out to be of a much wider character. The underground parts of the plant (particularly its roots) contain more active substances which have more powerful effect on the prostate gland [Razic, Onjia et al., 2003; Zhang, Liu et al., 2000; Kligler, 2003; Clifford, Nair et al., 2002; Bauer, 1996]. This statement has also been confirmed by the fact that, for example, common nettle roots (Urtica dioica L.) have been found to contain far more active substances with antiandrogenic effect than upper parts of the same plant. However, this plant has no stimulatory effect on the immunity system. There are lots of clinical investigations done to establish immunostimulatory, antipyretic and anticancerous effect of purple coneflower preparations [Gan, Thang et al., 2003]. However, there have been no scientific investigations designed to study the effect of active substances obtained from purple coneflower on hyperplasia of the prostate gland. When somebody is ill with BPH, his chances to develop infection in the urinary tract are highly increased due to the development of urinary stasis. Therefore, in treatment of BPH, it is expedient to administer preparations designed to reduce disease symptomatics along with antipyretic preparations. Antiinflammatory effect of purple coneflower has been proved by clinical investigations, while its antiandrogenic effect has not been studied [Islam & Carter, 2005; Goel Chang et al., 2002]. Then: Why should a patient use several chemical preparations if he can use only one safe polytherapeutic preparation of plant origin? Discussions concerning the question which patients should and which patients should not undergo conservative BPH treatment continue up to date. There are multicentral studies going on all over the world trying to establish the best version of conservative BPH treatment [Gamez, Mas et al., 2005; Zhan & Wei, 2005 a; Kehinde & Abul, 2005]. However, it is possible to note that there is no tactics for conservative BPH treatment as yet and there is no universally accepted scientific and clinical generalizing concept of conservative BPH treatment [Gamez, Mas et al., 2005; Zhan & Wei, 2005; Kehinde & Abdul, 2005; Vicente, 2002; Vicente, 2002]. 1.3. Aim and tasks of study Aim of the work is to investigate the antiandrogenic effect of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.Moench) extract on prostate glands of experimental rats and to evaluate the effect of duration of administration extract on the prostate gland and spermatogenesis of rats. Attempts are made to determine the effect of preparation under study on benign prostate hyperplasia. Tasks of study are: 1. To investigate the effect of purple coneflower extract on the size of the prostate gland of rats, tracing the influence of such preparations on structural changes and function of the prostate. 2. To study the impact of purple coneflower extract on the dimensions of rat testicles and epididymis, including its effect on structural changes and spermatogenesis. 3. To determine the effect of pu
dc.language.iso lit
dc.subject Spermatogenezė
dc.subject Testosterone
dc.subject Gerybinė prostatos hiperplazija
dc.subject Ežiuolė. Benign prostate hyperplasia
dc.subject Spermatogenesis
dc.subject Cornflowerr
dc.subject Testosteronas
dc.title Rausvažiedės ežiuolės Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench antiandrogeninių savybių eksperimentiniai tyrimai
dc.title.alternative Experimental studies of antiandrogenic properties of Echinacea purpurea (L.)Moench
dc.type Daktaro disertacija

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