LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES LUHS LIBRARY REPOSITORY

Kadmio ir cinko jonų bei purpurinės ežiuolės Echinacea purpurea (L) Moench poveikio pelėms įvertinimas

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dc.contributor.author Smalinskienė, Alina
dc.date.accessioned 2017-08-21T08:17:48Z
dc.date.available 2017-08-21T08:17:48Z
dc.date.issued 2006
dc.identifier.uri http://repository.lsmuni.lt/handle/1/60025
dc.description.abstract THE ASSESSMENT OF INFLUENCE OF ZINC IONS AND ECHINACEA PURPUREA (L.) MOENCH FOR MICE INTOXICATED BY CADMIUM IONS Abstract Background. Cadmium (Cd), a well-known environmental hazard, exerts a number of toxic effects in organism. It disturbs the activity of biochemical systems of cells. Accumulation of cadmium depends on the amount of essential trace elements, including zinc. Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (EP) can modify its influence. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of ions of cadmium, zinc, and EP on organism in experimental model of mice. The objectives of the scientific work were as follows: 1. To evaluate the accumulation of cadmium in the internal organs of experimental mice after acute and chronic intraperitoneal and per oral intoxication. 2. To assess morphological changes in liver tissue, mitotic and apoptotic activity of liver cells after the intoxication by cadmium ions of different duration and dose. 3. To assess the effect of zinc ions to the accumulation of cadmium in the internal organs and to the mitotic and apoptotic activity of liver cells in the organism of mice intoxicated by cadmium. 4. To evaluate the effect of EP to accumulation of cadmium in internal organs, mitotic and apoptotic activity of liver cells after the chronic intraperitoneal and per oral intoxication by cadmium ions. The scientific novelty of the study. This work makes our knowledge about mechanisms and outcomes of acute and chronic exposure to cadmium deeper. The integrated investigations exhibit not only the dynamics of cadmium accumulation in blood and tissues, but also reveal the morphological changes in livers cells and the metal effect to processes of mitosis and apoptosis. It is found that zinc ions effectively change accumulation of cadmium ions in blood and tissues and decrease harmful effect to livers cells. This work demonstrated for the first time that it was necessary to determine not only the quantity of absorbed toxic metals, but also the metabolism of these elements in organism, the morphological changes, mitotic and apoptotic activity of cells. The influence of Echinacea as immunomodulator changing the effect of heavy metals was investigated. The practical benefit. The intake of zinc and preparations of EP would decrease cadmium accumulation and its toxic effect especially for people highly exposed to cadmium. This work is valuable for further research investigating harmful effects of heavy metals in molecular mechanisms of cells. Materials and methods: Experiments were carried out on the white laboratory mice of 20-25g weight. Mice were i.p. injected and sipped with ZnSO4 CdCl2 and Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench extract following various protocols. The concentration of Cd and Zn in blood and tissue specimens taken from liver, kidneys, heart, spleen, skeletal muscle was determined using an electrothermal graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer Perkin-Elmer/Zeeman 3030. The number of positively stained (TUNEL+) nuclei of liver cells was determined by counting in randomly selected 10 histological fields per section. Extraction and electrophoresis of DNA from liver tissue was carried out and analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities with analyser Monarch was performed. Results: After single CdCl2 (0.5 LD50) intoxication during 24 hours Cd concentration statistically significantly increased in blood and all explored organs though most of this metal accumulates in liver. Mitotic and apoptotic indexes (MI, AI) of the liver cells were significantly increased 2h and 8h after Cd injection, however 24h after injection they decreased and remained the same as of control group mice. After 24 hours passed intoxication by cadmium foci of liver necrosis were detected. These data were concordant with statistically significant increasing of AST and ALT in mice blood. Group of experiments was performed to evaluate Zn2+ influence on the concentration of Cd2+ in blood and organs. ZnSO4 solution (Zn2+ 3.12 mg/1kg body mass) was injected 20 min. before intoxication with subtoxic CdCl2 dose (Cd2+ 1.6 mg/1kg body mass). When Zn2+ pretreatment was applied, Cd2+ concentration in mice blood and heart was higher during all testing time comparing with mice group injected with Cd2+ only. Zn premedication declined MI of liver cells of mice intoxicated with Cd until the level of control group. MI was the same in group of mice injected with Zn2+ only and controls. After periodical CdCl2 (0.05 LD50) i.p. injections for 6 weeks Cd concentration in blood and some organs of mice were statistically significantly higher in comparison with control group, though most of this metal accumulates in kidney. After chronic i.p. Cd influence various morphologic changes in liver tissue have been noticed. Inflammatory cell clusters and thick liver capsule infiltrated by inflammatory cells were found in mice liver. Number of mitotic and apoptotic liver cells significantly increased as compared with control group. Zn2+ concentration after ZnSO4 i.p injection for 6 weeks before Cd2+ intoxication (Zn2+ 0.535 mg/1kg body mass and Cd2+ 0.16 mg/1kg body mass) in blood and skeletal muscle was significantly lower, than after CdCl2 injections only, but that in liver, kidney, spleen and heart was slightly higher. Cd2+ concentration under Zn2+ influence was slightly higher in liver, but lower in other explored organs. Injected Zn2+ didn’t increase mitotic activity of liver cells but was suppressing under Cd2+ influence increased mitotic activity of liver cells. The same tendency was observed after evaluating results of apoptotic activity. After exploring Cd2+ concentration in blood and some organs of mice intoxicated with CdCl2 and two different EP concentrations for 6 weeks we found, that in groups received both EP and Cd the metal concentration was higher. EP extract of higher concentration (0.1LD50) increased MI and AI of liver cells, but MI was lower than mice received only CdCl2. Per oral administration of CdCl2 solutions for 8 weeks significantly increased Cd2+ concentration in blood and all explored organs. Long-term intoxication per os specificity is that major amount of this trace metal accumulates in kidney. It was detected that Cd2+ per os intoxication did not make influence on liver cells mitotic activity, however statistically significantly increased AI of mice liver cells. Obtained results showed, that Cd2+ concentration in blood and all explored organs of mice after long-term per os intoxication with two different concentrations of CdCl2 solution and EP extract was statistically significantly higher than that of CdCl2 only group mice. EP did not make influence on mitotic and apoptotic activity of liver cells. Conclusions 1. During 24 hours after the single intraperitoneal intoxication with ions of cadmium (0.5 LD50) it cumulates mainly in liver tissue. The mitotic and apoptotic activity of liver cells during the first hours after the intoxication significantly increases but after 24 hours it decreases and the necrosis is observed. 2. During 24 hours after the single ZnSO4 injection and CdCl2 intoxication the concentration of cadmium in blood and in all investigated organs increases as compared to the mice group intoxicated with Cd2+only. The ions of zinc don't influence the mitosis of liver cells and normalizes the increased mitotic activity induced with Cd2+. 3. After the long-term (6 weeks) multiplex intraperitoneal intoxication with ions of cadmium (0.05LD50) cadmium cumulates mainly in kidneys and liver. The mitotic and apoptotic activity of liver cells increases. There are foci of inflammatory cells in liver tissue. The latter morphological changes are combined with inflammatory reaction in liver capsule. 4. Long-term multiplex intraperitoneal injections of ZnSO4 combined with intoxication by CdCl2 leads to decrease of cadmium concentration in blood, kidneys, heart and spleen as compared to the mice group intoxicated by Cd2+ only. Administration of Zn2+ does not induce mitotic and apoptotic activity of liver cells. It suppresses the increased mitotic and apoptotic activity of cells of liver due to the effect of ions of cadmium. 5. Long-term injections of extract of EP (0.1 LD50) combined with CdCl2 (0.05 LD50) leads to the significant increase of cadmium concentration in blood and all investigated organs of experimental mice. EP decreases the mitotic activity of cells of liver induced by cadmium and increases apoptotic activity of the liver cells. 6. Long-term per oral administration of cadmium leads to the significant increase of concentration of cadmium in blood and all investigated organs of experimental mice. The apoptotic activity of cells of liver increases, but the mitotic activity of cells of liver doesn't change. 7. Long-term per oral administration of extracts of EP combined with solution of CdCl2 leads to the increase of concentration of cadmium in blood and all investigated organs as compared to the mice group intoxicated by Cd2+only. Per oral intake of EP extract (3.5 ml/l) has no influence for mitotic and apoptotic activity of liver cells.
dc.language.iso lit
dc.subject Atominė absorbcinė spektroskopija
dc.subject Pelės
dc.subject Echinacea purpurea
dc.subject Purpurinė ežiuolė
dc.subject Mitotic and apoptotic index of liver cells
dc.subject Kepenų ląstelių mitozinis ir apoptozinis indeksas
dc.subject Cadmium
dc.subject Kadmis
dc.subject Cinkas
dc.subject Atomic absorption spectroscopy.
dc.subject Mice
dc.subject Zinc
dc.title Kadmio ir cinko jonų bei purpurinės ežiuolės Echinacea purpurea (L) Moench poveikio pelėms įvertinimas
dc.title.alternative The Assessment of Influence of Zinc Ions and Echinacea Purpurea (L) Moench for Mice Intoxicated by Cadmium Ions
dc.type Daktaro disertacija


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