LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES LUHS LIBRARY REPOSITORY

Jaunesniojo mokyklinio amziaus vaiku psichine sveikata ir sasajos su socialiniais veiksniais

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dc.contributor.author Pastavkaitė, Gražina
dc.date.accessioned 2017-08-21T08:10:46Z
dc.date.available 2017-08-21T08:10:46Z
dc.date.issued 2005
dc.identifier.uri http://repository.lsmuni.lt/handle/1/60032
dc.description.abstract INTRODUCTION The validity of the problem. Mental, physical, and social health is vitally important, closely interrelated and interdependent factors of human well being. The perception of this mutual relationship allows understanding the crucial role of mental health on the development of the general well being of society and country. Children are important citizens of tomorrow. Their development, experience, ability to act and take decisions is a precondition for further advance, quality of life, and welfare. Unfortunately, the majority of the global community does not regard mental health and disorders as important as physical health. Generally these problems are being ignored and neglected (WHO, 2003). The general prevalence of the children‘s mental and behavioural disorders was investigated by many advanced countries (Germany, Japan, Switzerland, the USA) and by some developing countries (Ethiopia, India). According to the findings of the scientists (Tadesse, 1999; Steinhausen, 1998; Shaffer, 1996 et al.) 10–20% of children experience one or a few mental or behavioural problems. Lithuania is not an exception: 24.6% of the children complain regarding their mental health. Mental health centres have registered 9495 children under 18 being treated for mental disorders (State Mental Health Centre, 2003). Children with various levels of mental retardation (42.3%), behavioural and emotional (28.2%), and psychological development disorders (9.8%) constitute the majority of the patients (Lithuanian health program, conference material, 2004). Children’s mental health is not getting sufficient consideration. Lithuania continuously faces problems regarding medical assistance for children and their families in case of various disorders of mental health. According to the information provided by the State Mental Health Centre presently there is a shortage of capacity to provide the children with at least partially covered outpatient treatment, including a shortage of institutions able to provide more diverse complex services (e.g. specialized crisis centres, institutions for correction of children‘s development and rehabilitation) and there are problems related to the organization and funding of the multi–staged (medical, psychological, social, pedagogical, and etc.) services (Lithuanian Health Program, conference material, 2004). The magnitude of the problem is demonstrated by the increased consideration towards the children’s mental health by the specialists from various fields, politicians, and society. Nevertheless Lithuania still lacks scientific epidemiological research, facilitating the assessment on the prevalence of mental health disorders in children. Up until now sufficiently precise tests, adapted for the children, that would facilitate the assessment of the disorders are not available. Mental and behavioural disorders have substantial effect on the family and on the child‘s life, they change child’s adaptation, psychological stability, reduce academic achievements. According to the scientists (Group, Orley, Stein, 1999, 2002) the negative effect of the disorders is not only significant, but a long–lasting as well. The mental disorders in children and adolescents are a high price paid by society from the human, spiritual, and material point of view. AIM AND OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to assess the mental health of junior school aged children and its links to the social factors. Objectives: 1. To assess the nature and frequency among the 3rd year pupil’s beha-vioural and emotional problems as reported by parents and teachers. 2. To assess the social adaptation to school of the 3rd year pupils and study its links to the indicators of mental health. 3. To examine the relationship between the factors of family environment and the indicators of child‘s mental health and social adaptation to school. 4. To analyse the impact of smoking and consumption of alcohol on child’s behaviour, emotions and adjustment to school. 5. To assess the link between the sense of coherence and behaviour, emotions and adjustment to school among the 3rd year pupils. The scientific innovation of the study. In Lithuania so far little research has been done regarding mental health of junior school aged children. The profound information regarding the psychosocial factors, influencing the child‘s mental health and adjustment is not available. This study can be based on fragmental empirical research and official statistics. The available information hardly represents the scope of the disorders. Children‘s health is to be related to psychological and social factors: e.g. poverty, conflicts, somatic diseases, family and social environment. Mental disorders are not characteristic any specific group – they are universal. Therefore it is very important to assess the mental health and the prevalence of junior school aged children‘s disorders in order to strengthen their health and encourage prophylactic measures, including education of professionals and society aimed at reduction of negative impact of the mental disorders on the individual, family, and society. The present research is the first doctorial dissertation in Lithuania focussing on the above mentioned topic. The aim is to assess the prevalence of the mental disorders, their influence on the children‘s adjustment, academic achievements and also to assess the changes of health during the period of two years and to determine psychosocial factors, related to the mental health and adjustment. SAMPLE AND METHODS Sample and General Scheme of Research This research is one of the stages of a long–term epidemiological study. The study was begun in 1999/2000. It is being carried out by the Social Pediatric laboratory of Biomedical Research Institute of Kaunas University of Medicine. This paper presents the findings of the third stage of the ongoing research. During the course of the research the target group children were in the 3rd school year. The research was performed in 2002/2003 at 40 schools of the city of Kaunas. 522 1st year pupils (90.5% of the previous research target group) were traced and surveyed: 298 (57.1%) boys and 224 (42.9%) girls. Simultaneously the parents of the 434 3rd year pupils were surveyed (the rate of response was 83.2%). The teachers completed the questionnaires for 509 3rd year pupils (the rate of response was 97.5%). The above mentioned study is being continued. Due to the fact that the selected children have been observed for already a few years, this research can be considered cohortive perspective. Research Instruments The assessment checklist for the children’s behavioural and emotional problems The behavioural and emotional problems of the children were assessed with application of the behaviour checklist developed by T.M. Achenbach (1991) and extensively applied in the scientific studies and clinical practise. Certain versions were developed for parents (Child Behaviour Checklist further referred to as CBCL 4/18, the Lithuanian version called VEKT) and for teachers (Teacher Report Form further referred to TRF 5/18, the Lithuanian version called VEKM). Sense of Coherence Scale – SOC The scale is composed of 13 questions on self–confidence, environment, acceptance of the requirements set by the environment, and interest in life. The checklist was based on A. Antonovsky’s (1992) theory of salutogenesis, analysing salutogenic or health determining factors – internalizing harmony, social support, self–confidence, trusting other people, and etc. making up health and adjustment resources. A questionnaire for schoolchildren The survey questionnaire addressed for the schoolchildren consisted of 60 questions. It was based on the checklists of the prominent studies (WHO, CINDI Children Component, 1996; WHO HBSC, 1994. 1998, 2001). The questions used for analysing the children’s well being and social environment as well as their addictions were selected from the above mentioned checklists. With the aim to obtain the most objective assessment on certain factors for the 1st year pupils the checklist questions were left unchanged. Personal qualities of the child and the influence of social factors on the mental health, considering the child’s self–image and ability to make friends with other children were examined; the psychosocial factors on family and school were analysed. RESULTS Indicators of the third graders’ mental health Well being and subjective self–assessment for health This research studying the general state of the pupils’ health was narrowed down mainly to the pupils’ self–reports and their parents’ report regarding the frequency of various health complaints. The schoolchildren have provided their self–assessment for health by answering the question “Do you think you are healthy?” Half (49.8%) of the third graders perceived themselves as completely healthy while one third (39.0%) considered themselves sufficiently healthy, and one child in ten (11.2%) was not very healthy. The frequency of responses did not have significant difference among the genders. The parental assessment for their children’s health has indicated that 15.0% (13.4% girls and 16.4% boys; p>0.05) of children were suffering from certain disease, physical or psychological disorder. As reported by parents 85.0% of the third graders were healthy. Stomach ache, bellyache, headache, anxiety, anxiousness, allergic reactions were listed among the most prevalent health problems. The frequency of these disorders failed to provide any significant difference among the girls and the boys. The comparison of the parental opinion regarding the frequency of their children‘s complaints in the 1st and the 3rd school year has revealed – negative dynamics i.e. the pupils in the 3rd school year had more health complaints of various nature than in the 1st year (Fig. 1). Fig. 1. The frequency of the psychosomatic complaints of the 1st and 3rd year pupils based on the parental report * – p<0.05
dc.language.iso lit
dc.subject Children
dc.subject Mental health
dc.subject School
dc.subject Vaikai
dc.subject Mokykla
dc.subject Psichine sveikata
dc.subject Seima
dc.subject Familly
dc.title Jaunesniojo mokyklinio amziaus vaiku psichine sveikata ir sasajos su socialiniais veiksniais
dc.title.alternative Mental health of junior school aged children and links with the social factors
dc.type Daktaro disertacija


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